What Is The Vaccine? What Are The Types And Characteristics Of The Vaccine?



Vaccines are an antidote to infectious factors such as bacteria, viruses, which prevent even terminally ill patients in daily life. Vaccines consist of weakened disease virus, active parts of the disease, various toxic substances. When the body receives the vaccine, it produces antibodies and the immune system is formed. Thanks to the vaccine, pre-formed antibodies fight against the substances that come before them. In other words, the body becomes prepared for diseases.

Composition Of Vaccines

Vaccines are made from microorganisms that cause disease, such as bacteria, viruses, or poisons produced by them. It first goes through the necessary procedures to eliminate side effects, but it does not completely prevent it from producing antibodies in the body.

Live vaccines (Attenüe): live viruses are obtained at the end of natural or artificial attenuations. Live vaccines are used in harmless microorganisms such as the factor of cow disease of the flower vaccine.

Vaccines used by dead microbes are vaccines used in cholera and pertussis diseases. Vaccines containing poisons produced by microbes: their disease-causing qualities are destroyed. By using chemicals such as heat or formol, it destroys its effect.

Mechanism Of Vaccines

Live vaccines replicate microorganisms. If the vaccines are ineffective, they lose their disease-causing property or cause them to pass the disease very mildly. 2-3 weeks after the vaccines enter the body also strengthens immunity. He's been immune for years. Dead vaccines produce antibodies in the body. Is to be found on their symptoms. A dead vaccine must be repeated several times to develop a full immune system. A dead vaccine does not have a very long life span. The first vaccine in newborn children is made at the age of 2 months. Children connected to breast milk are weak to hold the vaccine because their immune system is not very developed. These vaccines, which are shot during adolescence and childhood, are the period in which the answer will best be received.

Side Effects

Vaccine 3 side effects vary. It is slightly circumvented after a live vaccine is made. After the measles vaccine, there may be a slight fever and rash. Side effects of needles containing inactivated substances such as dead bacteria, anatoxin or viruses; fever, malaise, redness where the vaccine was shot, swelling may occur.

The vaccine is divided into severe and mild complications. Severe complications are a rare condition. Convulsions, rarely brain inflammation. In children, whooping cough, measles are seen after flower vaccinations. Mild complications are also symptoms caused by the skin. Swelling of the lymph nodes occurs in the area that has been vaccinated.

Conditions That Cannot Be Vaccinated

- There are cases where a live vaccine should not be made. These are conditions such as diarrhea, fever, infectious diseases, heart diseases, pregnancy, premature birth of the baby.

- Those receiving cortisone therapy are inconvenient to administer a live vaccine, as it prevents the body from producing antibodies against the immune system.

- Because patients with malignant tumors cannot produce antibodies, treatment with a dead vaccine or anatoxin vaccine is not applied.

- Pertussis vaccine; it is certainly not applied in people with central nervous system disease. Patients with central nervous system disease should be very careful when administering weakened vaccines.

- Those with digestive system disease are inconvenient to receive polio vaccine.

- Vaccines containing egg protein should not be administered in patients with allergic properties. (Antihistamine-type vaccines should be carefully administered in priority of protection.)

- BCG vaccine should not be administered to liver patients. In addition, caution should be exercised when administering typhoid, diphtheria vaccine.

Types Of Vaccines

Polio Vaccine

Polio vaccine is taken orally. If children have difficulty getting it by mouth, it is appropriate to impregnate it to cut sugar. As a result of vaccination, a decrease in antibody levels occurs depending on the time. A vaccine made in correct and adequate doses lasts for life.

In patients taking cortisone and cancer drugs and undergoing radiation therapy, the immune system is suppressed. So his immune system is weakened. It is not considered appropriate for women who are considering conceiving to conceive within three months for precautionary purposes. Although there is no evidence that it has a negative effect, it is useful to take precautions.

Diphtheria Vaccine

Although diphtheria is a very rare disease today, it is a fatal disease that can occur throughout life. This vaccine, which is administered every ten years, is administered together with the pertussis and tetanus vaccine.

Adults who have been vaccinated against diphtheria may experience redness, swelling, and rarely fever at the place where they have been shot. The first vaccine in infants does not respond significantly. Reactions will disappear within 2-3 days.

It is possible to collect diphtheria patients in two groups. In the first case, the person who entered into a relationship with the patient was vaccinated against diphtheria no more than 5-6 years ago. In the second case, there was no diphtheria vaccine or long years had passed on the vaccine. In patients who have not yet recovered or in the acute period of diphtheria vaccine, breastfeeding, pregnancy period, hives, eczema, etc. it should definitely not be applied in skin diseases of allergy origin. Diabetics should also not be given the diphtheria vaccine. Another disease that should not be applied is severe chronic diseases such as malignant tumors.

Tetanus Vaccinus2

Clostridium tetani, which lives in the soil, enters the body through a wound, scratch on the skin. 8-16 days after the incubation period, if treatment is not seen, it leads to death. Jaw locking occurs before the incubation period and spreads throughout the body. The administration of tetanus vaccine has been made mandatory by the state. The immune constructive effect lasts for 5 years. It is a vital vaccine that should be administered every 5 years. Shepherds, scavengers, dirt road construction, mining, military service, farmers, athletes, tetanus disease in the military are the most common professions. People who are in these professions need to be more careful. In the vaccinated area, swelling and redness are also rare. Within a few days passes.

Whooping Cough Vaccine

It's a very easily transmitted, infectious disease. It is a disease that can lead to remittance seizures, disorders of brain function, pneumonia. The disease is more common in children and its symptoms are severe at this age. It is administered together with tetanus and diphtheria vaccine. Redness and swelling are seen at the place where the vaccine is administered. Reactions increase as age progresses.

Measles Vaccine

Measles, known as a childhood disease, is rare in very dangerous sizes. It can cause ear infection, pneumonia, bronchitis. Measles is contracted at a child's age. Children should be vaccinated against measles before entering the community. Mumps is mixed with rubella vaccines. 6 days after vaccination, 6% of children experience measles rashes for 5-6 days.

Mumps Vaccine

Mumps is a type of disease that occurs in children. It affects the salivary glands. It causes infection in other organs. 90% provide immunity for 10 years in people who have been vaccinated. It should not be applied to people who are allergic to eggs.

Rubella Vaccine

It is the mildest infectious disease in childhood. The disease passed during pregnancy is the biggest danger. Rubella vaccine side effects are also mild, as is the disease. It rarely appears to last for several months. Side effects such as various rashes, malaise, fever, swelling of the lymph nodes in the armpit of the neck, hives are the most common side effects. Rarely, adult women can also have joint pain for 2-3 days.

Hepatitis Vaccine

Hepatitis, which is a major health problem all over the world, is of the origin of the virus. Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E are types of viruses. Immunity lasts at least 4-5 years. This must be repeated after the process. It is applied from the outer surface of the arm to the muscle in adult people, and from the upper part of the hip in infants.Nov. Hepatitis A vaccine is given in the second and sixth months from the first dose, which will strengthen the effect of the immune system.

Fever, nausea, fatigue are rare, while redness, itching and swelling occur where the vaccine is shot. After a few days, the side effects will go away. It fully provides the immune system against the B virus.

TB Vaccine

While the incidence of TB vaccine is increasing in Turkey, it is also widely seen in the world. As a result of the inability to produce enough antibodies while the TB vaccine is administered orally, the vaccine is administered by injecting it into the skin. TB vaccine should be taken with extreme caution. Similar to a flower vaccine, it should be applied by dipping the needle into the skin several times or scratching the skin. It is generally applied to the outer surface of the arm. It should certainly apply deep into the skin, not under it. A tiny lesion occurs after 3 weeks in the area hit by the vaccine. The wound heals within 2-3 months. The BCG vaccine protects infants 80-90%, compared to 80% in 10-year-olds and 50% in adults. The vaccine does not have full protection, but it prevents the spread of the disease throughout the body.

Who Should Be Given The TB Vaccine?

In newborns and people with a negative tuberculin test result

5-10 years of age, social regions with widespread and economically inadequate disease, and people with a negative tuberculin test result

5-10 years old, people who have previously had this disease in the family

His military service beginners

Employees in health institutions

Medical students

Children of staff in the sanatorium

It is recommended for vaccination. People who provide these conditions should be vaccinated in health institutions.

Complications were not seen after the tuberculosis vaccine. If the vaccine is accidentally administered during the TB disease, the incubation period will be shortened. However, the local lesion will spread quickly and all its symptoms will appear. Growth of lymph nodes in the area where the vaccine is administered is a local complication. Lymph nodes have been observed to disappear in 1-2 months.

Smallpox Vaccine

The World Health Organization recognized smallpox as the 33rd most common disease outbreak on May 8, 1980. at his meeting, he announced that he was leaving the world. In our country, there is also no application of this vaccine.


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